A multicenter year-long randomized controlled trial of exercise training targeting cardiovascular risk factors and physical functioning in older men with prostate cancer (#106)
Aims. Long-term prostate cancer survivors are at an increased risk for comorbidities and physical deconditioning. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a year-long randomised controlled trial of exercise training in prostate cancer survivors >5 years post-diagnosis on cardiovascular risk factors and physical functioning. Methods. Between 2010-2011, 100 long-term prostate cancer survivors from TROG 03.04 RADAR previously treated with androgen deprivation therapy and radiotherapy were randomly assigned to 6 months supervised exercise (resistance and aerobic) followed by a home-based maintenance program for 6 months (n=50) or printed educational material about physical activity (n=50) for 12 months across 13 university-affiliated exercise clinics in Australia and New Zealand. The primary endpoint was 400-m walk time as a measure of cardiovascular fitness and secondary endpoints were physical function, patient-reported outcomes, muscle strength, body composition and biomarkers. Analysis of covariance was used to compare outcomes for groups at 6 and 12 months adjusted for baseline values. Results. Participants undergoing supervised exercise showed improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness performance at 6 months (-19 seconds, [P=.029]) and 12 months (-13 seconds, [P=.028]) and better lower body physical function across the 12-month period (P<.010). Supervised exercise also improved self-reported physical functioning at 6 (P=.006) and 12 months (P=.002), appendicular skeletal muscle at 6 months (P=.019) and objective measures of muscle strength at 6 and 12 months (P<.050). There were no differences between groups for regional or total fat mass. Conclusion. Supervised exercise training in long-term (>5 years) prostate cancer survivors is more effective than physical activity educational material to increase cardiorespiratory fitness, physical function, muscle strength and self-reported physical functioning at 6 months. Importantly, these benefits were maintained in the long-term with a home-based program with follow-up at 12 months.